RNA methylation occurs in a large selection of RNA nucleosides and this post transcriptional modification of RNA, carried out by a variety of RNA methyltransferases, appears in a wide variety of RNA species - including tRNA, mRNA, miRNA and RNA viruses. Over 90 methylated nucleosides have been found in tRNA and these play many significant roles in tRNA structure. In addition, methylation appears to mark the tRNA as mature, preventing its degradation as well as directing localization within the cell. mRNA, modified with 1-methylpseudouridine (1-Me-Ψ ) alone or in combination with 5-methylcytidine (5-Me-C), significantly increases protein expression in cells and mouse models. 1-Me-Ψ is also a modified nucleobase that can greatly enhance the properties of mRNA by reducing immunogenicity and increasing stability.
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